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Info & Treatments for Kidney Stones & Kidney Disease
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Azotemia is a condition of the blood characterized by elevated levels of nitrogen-
Azotemia is a sign of kidney dysfunction, in that it is usually the result of inadequate blood filtering by the kidneys. As a key result of kidney disease, the condition is useful in diagnosis and also represents the primary danger inherent in kidney disorders and renal failure. As noted below, azotemia can result from various causes and although it always shows a failure of the kidneys and ureters to process and eliminate wastes properly, it is not always a sign of kidney disease.
The primary test for azotemia is a blood chemistry analysis for the prevalence of nitrogen-
All three types of azotemia are characterized by a decrease in the blood filtration
rate of the kidneys, but they are caused by different things. A BUN-
Prerenal azotemia is caused by a reduced blood flow from the kidneys. This can result from various causes, including blood loss, shock, trauma, congestive heart failure, and blockage of the renal artery. Prerenal azotemia is not a sign of kidney disease as such.
Prerenal azotemia results in a BUN-
Primary renal azotemia or renal azotemia is associated with renal failure. It often progresses to uremia, which is basically a more severe form of azotemia -
Postrenal azotemia is caused by a blockage of urine flow below the kidneys. This has various causes, the most common of which are probably kidney stones and pregnancy; however, the ureters can be compressed by cancer, prostatic hyperplasia, or bladder stones, and there are various congenital conditions that can also cause it. In postrenal azotemia the BUN:creatinine ratio is above 15 but less than 20.
Although azotemia is usually free of overt symptoms, it can result in decreased urine flow, fatigue, thirst, rapid pulse, dry mouth, and occasionally swelling and uremic frost.
Prevention and treatment of azotemia depends on the type of azotemia and the underlying cause. Very different treatments will be called for in the case of blood loss than kidney stones or acute renal failure, obviously. For prerenal azotemia, the goal is to restore blood flow to the kidneys before serious damage occurs. That can mean intravenous restoration of blood fluids and of course treatment of the injuries causing the problem. The possibility of azotemia as a complication of trauma is always important to consider in treating injuries.
Symptomatic treatment of azotemia itself can take the form of rehydration, maintenance of blood chemistry balance, or in severe cases dialysis to replace kidney function (normally the last is only prescribed in cases of acute renal failure). Acute renal failure is treated by hospitalization and intensive care. It's a rapid-
When azotemia results from chronic kidney disease, damage to the kidneys may be permanent and, in the late stage of the disease, the only permanent treatment is a kidney transplant. Dialysis can be used to replace kidney function on an ongoing basis.
Prevention of azotemia is a matter of taking care of kidney function through diet, weight management, exercise, and early detection of problems.
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|Mild Kidney Failure|
|Bun Creatinine Ratio|
|Protein in Urine|
|Glomerular Filtration Rate|
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